A Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah approach to the protection and preservation of marine life.

by Mujaahid White

- environment - A Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah approach to the protection and preservation of marine life.

Author: Sh. Dr. Muhammad Ridwaan Gallant

Organizations: Muslim Judicial Council, Southern African Faith  Communities’ Environment Institute, University of the Western Cape.

Abstract:

During the last century we have witnessed a decline in marine life right around the globe. Various factors such as human activities on the oceans and seas as well as the high amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and absorbed by the oceans are responsible for the decline of marine life. Global warming which is a result of the greenhouse effect disturbs marine life on a daily basis.

Overfishing has caused a high reduction in marine life and the world is facing a catastrophe if this unsustainable practice will be allowed to continue. Traffic on the seas and oceans has resulted in oil spills, with devastating effects on those affected areas.

Marine pollution is caused due to land-based activities. This includes deforestation, industrial chemical emissions, pesticide and fertilizer run-off, oil spills and sewage effluent. The world’s coastal ecosystems face degradation due to it.

Coral reefs have been damaged by human activities. This is due to soil erosion from deforestation, sewage discharge, and industrial and agricultural chemical pollution. Industrial waste products are released into coastal waters, both intentionally and as a by-product of routine practices. Most of these waste products come from land run-off, natural sources, and “normal” spillage associated with loading oil into tankers and cleaning out storage tanks while at sea.

Sewage dumping also poses a widespread threat to coastal waters. Sewage does its damage by fertilizing water, it then causes huge algae blooms that deplete the water’s oxygen, eventually killing much marine life. Red tide which is a toxic plankton thrives in such rich environments and it regularly kills fish, marine mammals, and, occasionally, people who eat toxin-contaminated seafood. The dumping of waste influences the coastal regions.

This paper will investigate the way human activities influences marine life as well as the consequences of human actions.

The protection of values such as faith, life, offspring, intellect and property forms the basis of Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah. This paper will also show how marine life can be saved by applying Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah principles.

Key Words:  Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah (Objectives of the Sharī’ah); ocean acidification; coral bleaching;  ecosystems;   

Introduction

Recent years we have witnessed a decline of sea life right around the globe. Various factors such as expansion of human resources are responsible for the reduction of sea life. In other cases sea life has become victim of exploitation due to the greed of some individuals. In most cases sea life are being destroyed without justification. The result of human activities is that species go extinct and ecosystems are degraded and polluted.

Over fishing is one major problem regarding the sustainability of the oceans. The number of people in coastal areas continues to increase, therefore the potential for harming the natural growth of fish in the ocean increases correspondingly.  In the 1990s it was estimated that 60 percent of the world’s fisheries are either fully exploited or over-fished. An estimated 27 million tons of fish are discarded each year (United Nations: 2001: 51).

The marine and coastal issues which are significant to sustainable development were identified in Agenda 21, Chapter 6 (cited in United Nations: 2001: 45) and include: ‘degradation from land-based activities; unsustainable exploitation of fish and other living resources; marine pollution from shipping and offshore oil and gas project; the protection of biodiversity and fragile ecosystems and the relationship to climate change, including the implication of sea level rise.’

Importance of wildlife from a Islamic Shari’ah point of view

The Qur’ān explains the importance of wildlife on earth: : “There is not an animal ( that lives) on earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you” (Qur’ān 6:38).

The Prophet’s (SAW) advice:  “Have mercy to those on earth, so that He on High will in turn have Mercy on you”  (Tirmidhī : 1987 : Vol. 4: 285:no.1924). This Ḥadīth has been interpreted to refer not only to human beings but also to animals. If you have mercy on the creation of the Creator, Allāh will then have mercy on you.

The Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) taught us the consequences of killing the animal kingdom without justification. Any killing of animals without justification in Islam is not allowed even if the victim is a very small animal or bird.  The Prophet (SAW) said: “No human being kills a sparrow or [something] larger, without right, except that Allah will ask him about it (hold him responsible) on the Day of Judgment” It was asked: O Prophet of Allāh! What is its right? He (SAW) said: “It’s right is that you slaughter it and eat it, you do not kill it and throw it away.”(An- Nasā’i 1990:  Vol. 4 Book no.7 : 206: no. 4329). In another narration the Prophet Muḥammad (SAW) said: ” If you kill a sparrow senselessly, it will hasten to Allah on the Day of Judgment saying: O Rabb! so and so killed me for play and not for use!”.(An- Nasā’i:1990:  Vol. 4 Book no.7 : 239: no. 4427)  These traditions clearly indicate that the person hunting for anything except food will face dire consequences in the Hereafter. 

Although a killing of birds are motioned in the traditions this rule applies to all other animals that are killed without justification. Killing of animals unnecessarily can lead to extinction of certain species and in the long run can impact on the ecological systems.

Overfishing in the Sea

Two-thirds of the world’s fish stocks are either fished at their limit or over fished. The UN food and agriculture organisation (FAO) has estimated that 70 percent of the fish population is fully used, overused or in crisis. Since 1950, with the onset of industrialized fisheries, we have rapidly reduced the resource base to less than 10 percent not just in some areas, not just for some stocks, but for entire communities of these large fish species from the tropics to the poles. (State of world marine fishery resources: Fisheries and Aquacultural Department: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/426/en accessed 19 September 2015.).

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Fish stocks mostly targeted these days range from giant blue marlin to mighty bluefin tuna, and from tropical groupers to Antarctic cod. The impact we have had on ocean ecosystems has been vastly underestimated. These are the big predators of the sea, and the species we most value. Their depletion not only threatens the future of these fish and the fishers that depend on them, it could also bring about a complete re-organization of ocean ecosystems, with unknown global consequences  according to Boris Worm of Dalhousie University and the University of Kiel in Germany. ( http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2003/05/0515_030515_fishdecline.html. Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Ransom Myers, a fisheries biologist based at Dalhousie University in Canada said that from giant blue marlin to mighty blue fin tuna, and from tropical groupers to Antarctic cod, industrial fishing has scoured the global ocean. He also further said that since 1950, with the onset of industrialized fisheries, we have rapidly reduced the resource base to less than 10 percent, not just in some areas, not just for some stocks, but for entire communities of these large fish species from the tropics to the poles ( http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2003/05/0515_030515_fishdecline.html. Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Many fish stocks are in precipitous decline. Bycatch is a major contributor to fishing mortality and a key factor in observed decline of fish stocks.  Bycatch in fishing terms is understood to be a fish or any other marine species that is caught unintentionally while fishermen try to catch certain species for consumption purposes.  Bycatch can also be undersized or juvenile individuals of the targeted species. Globally using of fishing nets are responsible for the killing of non –targeted marine species.(Fishing Problems: Bycatch.  http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue _planet/problems/problems_fishing/fisheries_management/bycatch222/. Date accessed: 19 September 2015). Tonya Wimmer, Species Conservation Manager WWF in Canada, says that when fishing, harvesters might catch 5-10 other marine species per fish they were targeting. Some may be able to be thrown back alive, but most are not and are the unfortunate consequence of modern fishing. http://blog.wwf.ca/blog/2015/07/06/bringing-the-business-of-bycatch-to-light/ Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Fishing boats are venturing into farther reaches of the ocean, guided by high-tech devices. The sophisticated equipment makes it possible to scope out fish and cast nets with greater accuracy, even in areas that in the past were difficult to trawl As a result, many deep-water species are being fished so heavily they could soon reach the point of no return. Devices designed or perfected for precise military operations including sonar technology, satellite navigation systems, and depth sensors are now routine equipment for many commercial fishing fleets. These devices combined with detailed maps of the ocean floor prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, give boats access to deep-sea areas where fish gather and spawn. In many cases aerial surveillance is part of the picture. Some fishing boats in the Atlantic use spotter planes while the high-value tuna industry in the Pacific uses helicopters and other tracking equipment to seek out schools of prized fish and scoop them up in huge quantities, according to the scientists. In many cases aerial surveillance is part of the picture. Citing the findings of a recent survey of North Atlantic fisheries, the scientists warned that stocks of highly favored fish such as cod, tuna, haddock, flounder, and swordfish could disappear from plates within a decade if these species continue to be fished at present levels. The survey, headed by Daniel Pauly of the University of British Columbia Fisheries Center and sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trust, found that catches of popular food fish in North Atlantic waters have decreased by half over the last 50 years, although fishing has tripled in intensity. (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Some evidence suggests that severely overexploited species may not recover even decades after depletion, he said. In Canada, for example, northern cod were fished so intensively that today the population is only a small percentage of the once-abundant stocks.(Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

According to the scientists, commercial fishing companies began tapping deep-water fisheries in the 1960s and 1970s, when shallow-water fisheries were yielding smaller catches. Fishing boats became more powerful, with sturdier winches, cables, and nets. As fishing fleets traveled farther afield, previously unfamiliar species of deep-sea fish began showing up widely in international markets and on restaurant menus. The annual catches of some of these now-popular varieties, such as the species marketed as Chilean sea bass and orange roughy, have already declined significantly, according to data cited in Boston and in other scientific reports. For example, stocks of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) in some regions are less than 20 percent of what they were only a decade ago. The fish dwells deep in the ocean and travels long distances to spawn above seamounts in the Southern Hemisphere. Protected in the deep, it can grow to 150 years old. Because of this long lifespan, it matures and reproduces relatively late in life .In the 1980s, fishing fleets discovered the fish’s spawning grounds off New Zealand and southern Australia. Catches were often remarkable, as many as 60 tons in only 20 minutes of trawling. In the face of such intensive harvesting, H. atlanticus can’t breed fast enough to ensure that the species will be available for future generations. . (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

According Rosenberg even as fish stocks steadily dwindle, there are no signs that commercial fishing companies will voluntarily change their practices because the soaring demand for fish continues to push up prices. Fish prices especially for prime species such as cod, haddock, and flounder have risen as much as eight times the consumer price index over the past 20 years He further said that fish is rapidly becoming a luxury in so many places that the prices are rising as dramatically as the harvest is falling and therefore this means that the big fishing operations have big incentives to extract even small fish, and it enables them to invest in even more technology and more powerful boats (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Yvonne Sadovy, a scientist at the University of Hong Kong  says that in Asia, reef fish are paying the price in terms of exploitation. In the past, most of the locally consumed fish came from South China Sea waters, she noted. As economies boomed and local fisheries became overfished, fishing boats began traveling farther away from Hong Kong, as far east as Fiji and into the Indian Ocean looking for supplies to keep up with the growing demand,” she said. . (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225 _0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Sadovy also further said that imports of live reef fish to Hong Kong increased from about 4,000 metric tons in 1988 to 30,000 metric tons in 2000, citing that demand is particularly strong in China. Live-fish carrier vessels, called viviers, can carry up to 30 metric tons of fish from reefs throughout much of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, Sadovy explained. The giant vessels often deploy smaller boats, as many as 20 per trip, to reach inner reef sites, and the fish are brought back to the mother ship for transport to major demand centers in Southeast Asia. She further argues that the high prices paid for luxury live reef fish make such expensive operations possible . (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic .com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Pelagic long lines are the most widespread fishing gear. Long lines catch a wide range of species in a consistent way over vast areas. Long lining is a fishing method that uses hooks instead of nets. These lines, which can be 130 kilometers (80 miles) long, are set for open ocean species like swordfish and tuna.But fish aren’t the only marine creatures they catch. Seabirds, particularly albatrosses and petrels, regularly grab the baited hooks. Many albatrosses are dragged to their deaths—more than 100,000 each year. (Owen . J : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news /2003/04/0417_030417_albatross.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Overfishing

Courtesy https://www.google.com/search?q=overfishing+pictures&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwiYtPDc5KX2AhXJtyoKHWcqBZYQ2-cCegQIABAA&oq=overfishing&gs_lcp=CgNpbWcQARgCMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDM

Influence of global warming on the marine life

Over the last century billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases were emitted into earth’s atmosphere due to industrial and other human activities. About half of this anthropogenic, or man-made, CO2 has been absorbed over time by the oceans. The introduction of massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the seas is altering water chemistry and affecting the life cycles of many marine organisms, particularly those at the lower end of the food chain. When carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in this ocean, carbonic acid is formed. This leads to higher acidity, mainly near the surface, which has been proven to inhibit shell growth in marine animals and is suspected as a cause of reproductive disorders in some fish. (http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ ocean/explore/pristine-seas/critical-issues-ocean-acidification/ Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Ocean acidification :The ocean has absorbed about 30 percent of the carbon dioxide humans have sent into the atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution estimate about 150 billion tons. However, this great service, which has substantially slowed global warming, has been accomplished at great cost: The trend in ocean acidification is about 30 times greater than natural variation, and average surface ocean pH, the standard measure of acidity, has dropped by 0.1 unit – a highly significant increase in acidity. This is damaging many ocean species that use calcium carbonate to form their skeletons and shells. Studies have shown that calcium carbonate formation is disrupted if water becomes too acidic. Ocean acidification also appears to be affecting whole ecosystems, such as coral reefs, which depend on the formation of calcium carbonate to build reef structure, which in turn provides homes for reef organisms. (Fujita : https://www.edf.org/blog/2013/11/14/five-ways-climate-change-affecting-our-oceans Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

 The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) has reported that the uptake of anthropogenic carbon since 1750 has led to the oceans becoming more acidic.  Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to further acidification. Projections estimate a reduction in average global surface ocean pH of between 0.14 and 0.35 units over the course of the 21st century. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_ work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

While the effects of ocean acidification on the marine biosphere are not yet fully documented, the progressive acidification of our oceans is expected to have negative impacts on marine shell-forming organisms (e.g. corals) and their dependent species. Fish, squid, and other gilled marine animals may also find it harder to “breathe” as extracting the dissolved oxygen from acidic waters becomes more difficult. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

 

Coral bleaching: Coral bleaching is the whitening of corals, due to stress-induced expulsion or death of their symbiotic protozoa, zooxanthellae, or the loss of pigmentation within the protozoa. Once bleaching begins, it tends to continue even without continuing stress. If the coral colony survives the stressful period, zooxanthellae often require weeks or months to return to normal density. New residents may be of a different species and change the makeup of marine ecosystems dramatically.  Often biological diversity is reduced, making the reef even less resilient to future environmental change. Some species of zooxanthellae and corals are more resistant to stress than others. Temperature change is the most common cause of coral bleaching. Large coral colonies, such as porites, are able to withstand extreme temperature shocks. Other, more fragile branching corals, such as table coral, are more susceptible to stress following temperature change.  Increasing ocean acidification likely exacerbates the bleaching effects of thermal stress. The Great Barrier Reef experienced bleaching in 1980, 1982, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. While most areas recovered with relatively low levels of coral death, some locations suffered severe damage, with up to 90% of corals killed. The most widespread and intense events occurred in the summers of 1998 and 2002, affecting about 42% and 54% of reefs, respectively. Under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) moderate warming scenarios, corals on the Great Barrier Reef are very likely to regularly experience summer temperatures high enough to induce bleaching. http://www.wwf. org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

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Coral Bleaching

Courtesy https://www.google.com/search?q=coral+bleaching+pictures&rlz=1C1ONGR_enZA989ZA989&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&vet=1&fir=rWGmhuvkaEyJTM%252C1fSCIUpDmvCGZM%252C_%253BWLXgU4on6XbatM%252C

Rising sea levels: Global sea levels may rise by more than 60 centimeters during the next 100 years due to the melting of glaciers and polar ice, and thermal expansion of warmer water. Rising water levels will have serious impacts on marine ecosystems. The amount of light reaching offshore plants and algae dependent on photosynthesis could be reduced, while coastal habitats are already being flooded. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

Drowning wetlands: Rising sea levels, partly the result of heat absorbed by the ocean, is also “drowning” wetlands. Wetlands normally grow vertically fast enough to keep up with sea level rise, but recently the sea has been rising too fast for wetlands to keep their blades above water.Coral reefs and sea grass meadows are also in danger of “drowning” since they can only photosynthesize in relatively shallow water. (Fujita : https://www.edf.org/blog/2013/11/14/five-ways-climate-change-affecting-our-oceans Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Altered lifestyles and locations: Rising temperatures can directly affect the metabolism, life cycle, and behaviour of marine species. For many species, temperature is a cue for reproduction, so temperature changes could affect successful breeding. Temperatures also determine the number of male and female offspring born to marine turtles, as well as some fish and copepods (tiny, shrimp-like animals on which many other marine animals feed). Changing climate could, therefore, skew sex ratios and threaten population survival. As the oceans warm, the location of the ideal water temperature may shift for many species. A study has shown that fish in the North Sea have moved further north or into deeper water in response to rising sea temperatures. Other species may lose their homes for other reasons. The distribution of penguin species on Antarctic Peninsula, for example, is changing due to the reductions in sea ice caused by global warming. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

Higher Sea Levels :When water heats up, it expands. Thus, the most readily apparent consequence of higher sea temperatures is a rapid rise in sea level. Sea level rise causes inundation of coastal habitats for humans as well as plants and animals, shoreline erosion, and more powerful storm surges that can devastate low-lying areas. http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/explore/pristine-seas/critical-issues-sea-temperature-rise/ Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Stronger Storms: Many weather experts say we are already seeing the effects of higher ocean temperatures in the form of stronger and more frequent tropical storms and hurricanes/cyclones. Warmer surface water dissipates more readily into vapor, making it easier for small ocean storms to escalate into larger, more powerful systems.These stronger storms can increase damage to human structures when they make landfall. They can also harm marine ecosystems like coral reefs and kelp forests. And an increase in storm frequency means less time for these sensitive habitats to recover. http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/explore/pristine-seas/critical-issues-sea-temperature-rise/ Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

Stormy weather: Most scientists believe that global warming will herald a new era of extreme and unpredictable weather. Tropical storms and heavier rainfall may increase, causing physical damage to coral reefs, other coastal ecosystems, and coastal communities. Hurricanes Hugo and Marilyn, which hit the US Virgin Islands National Park in 1989 and 1995, respectively, did massive damage to coral ecosystems. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015).

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Result of oil spills in the sea

Courtesy https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/illustration/oil-spill-with-seagull-royalty-free-illustration/165922567?adppopup=true

 

Solutions to saving marine life

Sustainable efforts have to be implemented by the fishing population to keep up with the huge amount of fish that is being exploited worldwide. A critical measure to restore productivity due to intensive fishing the scientists agreed, is establishing “no-take” marine reserves so fish will have some relief from the hi-tech, round-the-clock exploitation. “When there is no place for fish to hide, we can devastate entire populations,” said Jeff Hutchings of the University of Dalhousie in Canada. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

According to Charles Birkeland, a researcher at the University of Hawaii, the Philippines began establishing marine reserves in the mid-1970s and now has as many as 500. Support for the conservation measure grew, he said, after local people experienced the benefits. Several decades ago, a scientist helped villagers on Apo Island and Sumilon Island set up marine reserves, which demarcated 25 percent of the local reefs as “no-take” zones. Eventually, fish yields in the remaining 75 percent of the reefs nearly doubled. Birkeland also further said that the fish in the protected areas grew larger, were more plentiful, and produced more offspring, which also improved stocks in adjacent areas as the fish migrated and spawned. (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

In a study designed to evaluate such spillover effects Roberts and his colleagues showed that the creation of marine sanctuaries off St. Lucia and Florida led to higher yields and larger fish in neighboring fisheries.  Creating marine reserves isn’t enough to revive fish populations that are declining rapidly to alarming levels, the scientists said. Among their recommendations, they called for a substantial reduction in the size of fishing fleets and the elimination of taxpayer subsidies that enable fishing boats to augment their technological capabilities. . (Pasell : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/02/0225_0226_fishcrisis.html Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

WWF-Canada with Tonya Wimmer, in the lead has been filling the gap for the past ten years in terms of rectifying the issue of bycatch. They have worked fish harvesters, researchers and the government to better understand the true threat of bycatch and to introduce best practices for preventing bycatch and protecting species at risk. They have found the most success in working directly with the fishing industry to demonstrate the possible. For example, a recent partnership with a lobster fishery in the Bay of Fundy and southwestern Nova Scotia resulted in approximately 1,700 lobster harvesters changing the way they fish their so that it reduces the amount of line floating in the water. Their aim is to keep rope out of the path of whales, like endangered North Atlantic right whales, which visit annually to feed. http://blog.wwf.ca/blog/2015/07/06/bringing-the-business-of-bycatch-to-light/ Date accessed: 19 September 2015).

The United Nations had many climate change conferences on a yearly basis with the last two being COP 19 in Warsaw, Poland in 2013 and COP 20 in Lima , Peru in 2014.  COP 21 will be in Paris, France in 2015. Every year many countries take resolutions to reduce their carbon output but a final decision is never reach. Let us hope that COP 21 will be a step in the right direction.

 

Conclusion

This paper has identified the way our marine life is being destroyed on a daily basis due to the activity by humankind and has given some solutions to the problems.

It is important that Governments globally take a stand on the protection of marine life, wherever they exist on this planet because this is a global effort. Maqāid al-Sharī’ah which has a close resemblance to sustainable development, teaches us that if we are not going to protect religion, life, mind, offspring, and property, future generations will not be able to benefit from planet earth.

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http://www.remibenali.com/issues-caspian-sea/index.php Date Accessed: September 2015

http://unimaps.com /aral-sea/index.html Date Accessed: September 2015

http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/oceans_and_marine/marine_threats/climate_change_impacts/ Date accessed: 21 September 2015

https://www.google.com/search?q=overfishing+pictures&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwiYtPDc5KX2AhXJtyoKHWcqBZYQ2-cCegQIABAA&oq=overfishing&gs_lcp=CgNpbWcQARgCMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDMgQIABBDM

https://www.google.com/search?q=coral+bleaching+pictures&rlz=1C1ONGR_enZA989ZA989&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&vet=1&fir=rWGmhuvkaEyJTM%252C1fSCIUpDmvCGZM%252C_%253BWLXgU4on6XbatM%252C

https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/illustration/oil-spill-with-seagull-royalty-free-illustration/165922567?adppopup=true

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please find publication from our Environmental Desk, below:

A Maqāṣid al-Sharī’ah approach to the protection and preservation of marine life.


About the Author


Mujaahid White